VACCINATIONS FOR ADULT HORSES

 

VACCINATIONS FOR ADULT HORSES

 

**ALL VACCINATION PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED IN CONSULTATION WITH A LICENSED VETERINARIAN**

 

 

DISEASE

Broodmares Other Adult Horses

(> 1 year of age)

 

previously vaccinated against the disease indicated

Other Adult Horses

(> 1 year of age)

unvaccinated or

lacking vaccination history

 

COMMENTS

 

Tetanus

 

 

 

 

 

Eastern / Western Equine Encephalo- myelitis (EEE/WEE)

 

Previously vaccinated:

Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

2-dose series

2nd dose 4-6 weeks after 1st dose. Revaccinate 4-6 weeks pre-partum

 

 

Previously vaccinated:

Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

2-dose series

2nd dose 4 weeks after 1st dose. Revaccinate 4-6 weeks pre- partum.

 

Annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annual – spring, prior to onset of vector season.

 

2-dose series

2nd dose 4 – 6 weeks after 1st dose. Annual revaccination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-dose series

2nd dose 4 – 6 weeks after 1st dose.

 

Revaccinate prior to the onset of the next vector season.

 

Booster at time of penetrating injury or prior to surgery if last dose was

administered over 6 months previously.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consider 6-month revaccination interval for:

 

*  In high risk situations such as an early onset of seasonal disease

 

*  Increase incidence in a geographic area

 

*  Foals of unvaccinated mares

 

Practitioner in consultation with manufacturer, may consider starting earlier vaccination or using a product more frequently.

 

CORE VACCINATIONS protect against diseases that are endemic to a region, are virulent/highly contagious, pose a risk of severe disease, those having potential public health significance, and/or are required by law. Core vaccines have clearly demonstrable efficacy and safety, with a high enough level of patient benefit and low enough level of risk to justify their use in all equids.

 

 

West Nile Virus (WNV)

 

Previously vaccinated: Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Unvaccinated or lacking vaccination history:

It is preferable to vaccinate naïve mares when open.

 

In areas of high risk, initiate primary series as described for unvaccinated, adult horses.

 

Annual – spring, prior to onset of vector season

 

3-dose series:

1st dose at 4 – 6 months of age

2nd dose 4 – 6 weeks after the 1st dose

3rd dose at 10 – 12 months of age Annual Revaccination

 

Rabies

 

Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum OR

Prior to breeding*

 

Annual

 

Single dose

Annual revaccination

 

*Due to the relatively long duration of immunity, this vaccine may be given

post-foaling but prior to breeding and thus reduce the number of vaccines given to a mare pre-partum.

 

RISK-BASED VACCINATIONS can be found on the following pages

 

RISK-BASED VACCINES are selected for use based on risk assessment** performed by, or in consultation with, a licensed veterinarian.   Use of these vaccines may vary between individuals, populations, and/or geographic regions.

Note: Vaccines are listed in this table in alphabetical order, not in order of priority for use.

 

**Refer to “Principles of Vaccination” in main document for criteria used in performing risk assessment.

 

 

 

 

DISEASE

Broodmares  

Other Adult Horses

(> 1 year of age)

 

previously vaccinated against the disease indicated

 

Other Adult Horses

(> 1 year of age)

 

unvaccinated or

lacking vaccination history

 

COMMENTS

 

Anthrax

 

Not recommended during gestation

 

Annual

 

2-dose series

2nd dose 3-4 weeks after 1st dose. Annual revaccination.

 

Do not administer concurrently with antibiotics.

 

Use caution during storage, handling and administration. Consult a physician immediately if human exposure to vaccine occurs by accidental injection, ingestion, or otherwise through the conjunctiva or broken skin.

 

Botulism

 

Previously vaccinated:

Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

3-dose series

1st dose at 8 months gestation. 2nd dose 4 weeks after 1st dose 3rd dose 4 weeks after 2nd dose

 

Annual

 

3-dose series

2nd dose 4 weeks after 1st dose

3rd dose 4 weeks after 2nd dose Annual revaccination

 

 

Horses with history of natural exposure: A vaccination protocol should be initiated once antitoxin immunoglobulins are depleted.

 

 

 

 

Equine Herpesvirus (EHV)

 

 

 

3-dose series with product labeled for protection against EHV abortion

 

Give at 5, 7 and 9 months of gestation

 

It is recommended to also booster broodmares with a product labeled for protection against respiratory disease 4-6 weeks prepartum

 

 

 

Annual (see comments)

 

 

 

 

Inactivated vaccine: Dependent upon on manufacturer’s product recommendation, the vaccine may be a two or three dose series with a 3 to 4-week interval between doses.

 

Annual revaccination

 

 

 

 

Consider 6-month revaccination interval for:

 

1)       Horses less than 5 years of age

2)       Horses on breeding farms or in contact with pregnant mares

3)       Performance or show horses at high risk

 

 

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)

 

Not recommended unless high risk.

 

Mares in foal should not be vaccinated until after foaling and not less than 3 weeks prior to breeding.

 

The manufacturer does not recommend use of this vaccine in pregnant mares, especially in the last two months of pregnancy.

 

Annual

 

·         Breeding stallions previously vaccinated against EVA: Annual booster every 12 months and not less than 3 to 4 weeks prior to breeding.

·         Breeding stallions, unvaccinated or having unknown vaccine history: All first-time vaccinated stallions should be isolated for 3 weeks following vaccination before being used for breeding.

·         Teaser Stallions: Vaccination against EVA is recommended on an annual basis.

 

Mares: Vaccinate when open

 

Single dose (See comments)

 

Prior to initial vaccination,  intact males and any horses potentially intended for export should undergo serologic testing and be confirmed negative for antibodies to EAV. Testing should be performed shortly prior to, or preferably at, the time of vaccination.

 

 

 

Influenza

 

 

Pregnant mares, previously vaccinated against influenza:

 

Inactivated vaccine: Annually with one dose administered 4 – 6 weeks pre- partum

 

Pregnant mares, unvaccinated or having unknown vaccine history:

 

Inactivated vaccine: Dependent upon on manufacturer’s product recommendation, the vaccine may be a two or three dose series with a 3 to 4- week interval between doses (IM), with the last dose administered 4-6 weeks pre-partum

 

 

Horses with ongoing risk of exposure: Semi-annual

Horses at low risk of exposure: Annual revaccination

.

 

 

Inactivated vaccine: Dependent upon on manufacturer’s product recommendation, the vaccine may be a two or three dose series with a 3 to 4-week interval between doses

 

Modified live vaccine: Administer a single dose (IN application).

 

Annual revaccination

 

 

Horses at increased risk of exposure may be revaccinated every 6 months. Some facilities and competitions may require vaccination within the previous 6 months to enter.

 

USEF Vaccination Rule https://www.usef.org/forms-  pubs/ANcxoLX1gNs/equine- vaccination-rule-gr845

 

Leptospirosis

 

Safe for use in pregnant mares

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

2 Initial doses 3-4 weeks apart

 

Previously vaccinated:

Annual revaccination

 

Annual

 

2 initial doses 3-4 weeks apart Annual revaccination

 

Field safety testing has demonstrated this product is safe for use in pregnant mares

 

Potomac Horse Fever (PHF)

 

Previously vaccinated:

Semi-annual, with one dose given 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

2-dose series

1st dose 7-9 weeks pre-partum

2nd dose 4-6 weeks pre-partum

 

Semi-annual to annual

 

2-dose series

2nd dose 3-4 weeks after 1st dose Semi-annual or annual booster

 

A revaccination interval of 3 – 4 months may be considered in endemic areas when disease risk is high.

 

 

 

Rotavirus

 

3-dose series

1st dose at 8 months gestation. 2nd and 3rd doses at 4-week intervals thereafter

 

Not applicable

 

Not applicable

 

Snake Bite

 

Please see guidelines for additional information

 

Please see guidelines for additional information

 

Please see guidelines for additional information

 

Strangles

Streptococcus equi

 

Previously vaccinated:

 

Killed vaccine containing M-protein):

 

Semi-annual with one dose given 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

 

Killed vaccine containing M- protein):

3-dose series

2nd dose 2 – 4 weeks after 1st dose

3rd dose 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Semi-annual to annual

 

Killed vaccine containing M-protein:

2-3 dose series

2nd dose 2 – 4 weeks after 1st dose 3rd dose (where recommended by manufacturer) 2 – 4 weeks after 2nd dose

Revaccinate semi-annually

 

Modified live vaccine:

2-dose series administered intranasally 2nd dose 3 weeks after 1st dose Revaccinate semi-annually to annually

 

Vaccination is not recommended as a strategy in outbreak mitigation.

 

Vaccinations for Adult Horses were developed by the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) Infectious Disease Committee. These guidelines and charts were reviewed and updated by the committee & Vaccination Guidelines Subcommittee and approved by the Board of Directors in 2020.

 

Please note that updates to these guidelines and charts may occur online at anytime and should always be referenced there for the most current version at www.aaep.org.