VACCINATIONS FOR ADULT HORSES

 

VACCINATIONS FOR ADULT HORSES

 

**ALL VACCINATION PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED IN CONSULTATION WITH A LICENSED VETERINARIAN**

 

 

DISEASE

Broodmares Other Adult Horses

(> 1 year of age)

 

previously vaccinated against the disease indicated

Other Adult Horses

(> 1 year of age)

unvaccinated or

lacking vaccination history

 

COMMENTS

 

Tetanus

 

 

 

 

 

Eastern / Western Equine Encephalo- myelitis (EEE/WEE)

 

Previously vaccinated:

Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

2-dose series

2nd dose 4-6 weeks after 1st dose. Revaccinate 4-6 weeks pre-partum

 

 

Previously vaccinated:

Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

2-dose series

2nd dose 4 weeks after 1st dose. Revaccinate 4-6 weeks pre- partum.

 

Annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annual – spring, prior to onset of vector season.

 

2-dose series

2nd dose 4 – 6 weeks after 1st dose. Annual revaccination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-dose series

2nd dose 4 – 6 weeks after 1st dose.

 

Revaccinate prior to the onset of the next vector season.

 

Booster at time of penetrating injury or prior to surgery if last dose was

administered over 6 months previously.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consider 6-month revaccination interval for:

 

*  In high risk situations such as an early onset of seasonal disease

 

*  Increase incidence in a geographic area

 

*  Foals of unvaccinated mares

 

Practitioner in consultation with manufacturer, may consider starting earlier vaccination or using a product more frequently.

 

CORE VACCINATIONS protect against diseases that are endemic to a region, are virulent/highly contagious, pose a risk of severe disease, those having potential public health significance, and/or are required by law. Core vaccines have clearly demonstrable efficacy and safety, with a high enough level of patient benefit and low enough level of risk to justify their use in all equids.

 

 

West Nile Virus (WNV)

 

Previously vaccinated: Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Unvaccinated or lacking vaccination history:

It is preferable to vaccinate naïve mares when open.

 

In areas of high risk, initiate primary series as described for unvaccinated, adult horses.

 

Annual – spring, prior to onset of vector season

 

3-dose series:

1st dose at 4 – 6 months of age

2nd dose 4 – 6 weeks after the 1st dose

3rd dose at 10 – 12 months of age Annual Revaccination

 

Rabies

 

Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum OR

Prior to breeding*

 

Annual

 

Single dose

Annual revaccination

 

*Due to the relatively long duration of immunity, this vaccine may be given

post-foaling but prior to breeding and thus reduce the number of vaccines given to a mare pre-partum.

 

RISK-BASED VACCINATIONS can be found on the following pages

 

RISK-BASED VACCINES are selected for use based on risk assessment** performed by, or in consultation with, a licensed veterinarian.   Use of these vaccines may vary between individuals, populations, and/or geographic regions.

Note: Vaccines are listed in this table in alphabetical order, not in order of priority for use.

 

**Refer to “Principles of Vaccination” in main document for criteria used in performing risk assessment.

 

 

 

 

DISEASE

Broodmares  

Other Adult Horses

(> 1 year of age)

 

previously vaccinated against the disease indicated

 

Other Adult Horses

(> 1 year of age)

 

unvaccinated or

lacking vaccination history

 

COMMENTS

 

Anthrax

 

Not recommended during gestation

 

Annual

 

2-dose series

2nd dose 3-4 weeks after 1st dose. Annual revaccination.

 

Do not administer concurrently with antibiotics.

 

Use caution during storage, handling and administration. Consult a physician immediately if human exposure to vaccine occurs by accidental injection, ingestion, or otherwise through the conjunctiva or broken skin.

 

Botulism

 

Previously vaccinated:

Annual, 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

3-dose series

1st dose at 8 months gestation. 2nd dose 4 weeks after 1st dose 3rd dose 4 weeks after 2nd dose

 

Annual

 

3-dose series

2nd dose 4 weeks after 1st dose

3rd dose 4 weeks after 2nd dose Annual revaccination

 

 

Horses with history of natural exposure: A vaccination protocol should be initiated once antitoxin immunoglobulins are depleted.

 

 

 

 

Equine Herpesvirus (EHV)

 

 

 

3-dose series with product labeled for protection against EHV abortion

 

Give at 5, 7 and 9 months of gestation

 

It is recommended to also booster broodmares with a product labeled for protection against respiratory disease 4-6 weeks prepartum

 

 

 

Annual (see comments)

 

 

 

 

Inactivated vaccine: Dependent upon on manufacturer’s product recommendation, the vaccine may be a two or three dose series with a 3 to 4-week interval between doses.

 

Annual revaccination

 

 

 

 

Consider 6-month revaccination interval for:

 

1)       Horses less than 5 years of age

2)       Horses on breeding farms or in contact with pregnant mares

3)       Performance or show horses at high risk

 

 

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)

 

Not recommended unless high risk.

 

Mares in foal should not be vaccinated until after foaling and not less than 3 weeks prior to breeding.

 

The manufacturer does not recommend use of this vaccine in pregnant mares, especially in the last two months of pregnancy.

 

Annual

 

·         Breeding stallions previously vaccinated against EVA: Annual booster every 12 months and not less than 3 to 4 weeks prior to breeding.

·         Breeding stallions, unvaccinated or having unknown vaccine history: All first-time vaccinated stallions should be isolated for 3 weeks following vaccination before being used for breeding.

·         Teaser Stallions: Vaccination against EVA is recommended on an annual basis.

 

Mares: Vaccinate when open

 

Single dose (See comments)

 

Prior to initial vaccination,  intact males and any horses potentially intended for export should undergo serologic testing and be confirmed negative for antibodies to EAV. Testing should be performed shortly prior to, or preferably at, the time of vaccination.

 

 

 

Influenza

 

 

Pregnant mares, previously vaccinated against influenza:

 

Inactivated vaccine: Annually with one dose administered 4 – 6 weeks pre- partum

 

Pregnant mares, unvaccinated or having unknown vaccine history:

 

Inactivated vaccine: Dependent upon on manufacturer’s product recommendation, the vaccine may be a two or three dose series with a 3 to 4- week interval between doses (IM), with the last dose administered 4-6 weeks pre-partum

 

 

Horses with ongoing risk of exposure: Semi-annual

Horses at low risk of exposure: Annual revaccination

.

 

 

Inactivated vaccine: Dependent upon on manufacturer’s product recommendation, the vaccine may be a two or three dose series with a 3 to 4-week interval between doses

 

Modified live vaccine: Administer a single dose (IN application).

 

Annual revaccination

 

 

Horses at increased risk of exposure may be revaccinated every 6 months. Some facilities and competitions may require vaccination within the previous 6 months to enter.

 

USEF Vaccination Rule https://www.usef.org/forms-  pubs/ANcxoLX1gNs/equine- vaccination-rule-gr845

 

Leptospirosis

 

Safe for use in pregnant mares

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

2 Initial doses 3-4 weeks apart

 

Previously vaccinated:

Annual revaccination

 

Annual

 

2 initial doses 3-4 weeks apart Annual revaccination

 

Field safety testing has demonstrated this product is safe for use in pregnant mares

 

Potomac Horse Fever (PHF)

 

Previously vaccinated:

Semi-annual, with one dose given 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

2-dose series

1st dose 7-9 weeks pre-partum

2nd dose 4-6 weeks pre-partum

 

Semi-annual to annual

 

2-dose series

2nd dose 3-4 weeks after 1st dose Semi-annual or annual booster

 

A revaccination interval of 3 – 4 months may be considered in endemic areas when disease risk is high.

 

 

 

Rotavirus

 

3-dose series

1st dose at 8 months gestation. 2nd and 3rd doses at 4-week intervals thereafter

 

Not applicable

 

Not applicable

 

Snake Bite

 

Please see guidelines for additional information

 

Please see guidelines for additional information

 

Please see guidelines for additional information

 

Strangles

Streptococcus equi

 

Previously vaccinated:

 

Killed vaccine containing M-protein):

 

Semi-annual with one dose given 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Previously unvaccinated or having unknown vaccination history:

 

Killed vaccine containing M- protein):

3-dose series

2nd dose 2 – 4 weeks after 1st dose

3rd dose 4 – 6 weeks pre-partum

 

Semi-annual to annual

 

Killed vaccine containing M-protein:

2-3 dose series

2nd dose 2 – 4 weeks after 1st dose 3rd dose (where recommended by manufacturer) 2 – 4 weeks after 2nd dose

Revaccinate semi-annually

 

Modified live vaccine:

2-dose series administered intranasally 2nd dose 3 weeks after 1st dose Revaccinate semi-annually to annually

 

Vaccination is not recommended as a strategy in outbreak mitigation.

 

Vaccinations for Adult Horses were developed by the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) Infectious Disease Committee. These guidelines and charts were reviewed and updated by the committee & Vaccination Guidelines Subcommittee and approved by the Board of Directors in 2020.

 

Please note that updates to these guidelines and charts may occur online at anytime and should always be referenced there for the most current version at www.aaep.org.

Blue Ridge Equine Clinic Deworming Protocol

 

                                                                               Blue Ridge Equine Clinic Deworming Protocol

 

Adult LOW Shedder Schedule

**to be used for adult equids over the age of 1 year**

 

  

 

 

SPRING

 

    FALL

   FECAL TEST: Yes No
 

   DEWORMER TO USE:

Moxidectin (Ivermectin for miniature horses) Ivermectin/praziquantel

  

 

Adult HIGH Shedder Schedule

**to be used for adult equids over the age of 1 year**

 

 

 

 

 

 

  MARCH

 

 

 

      MAY

 

 

 

      JULY

 

 

 

  OCTOBER

 

 

 

  JANUARY

 

 

  FECAL TEST:

 

  Yes

 

  No

 

  No

 

  Yes

 

  No

 

  DEWORMER TO USE:

Moxidectin (ivermectin for minis) Pyrantel (double dose) Ivermectin with Praziquantel Moxidectin (ivermectin for minis) Ivermectin

    

In case of emergency!

Are you traveling for the holidays and leaving your horses in someone else’s care? BREC has put together an “In case of an emergency” care sheet that will provide your barn caretaker with all the essential information needed in case anything should happen while you are away! The first page includes all emergency contacts and insurance information, while the second page allows you to leave specific feeding and care instructions for each individual horse. We hope you have a happy holiday and please remember we are available 24/7 if you need us!

In Case of an Emergency PDF

What Can We Do To Help Unwanted Horses?

That was the question the American Association of Equine Practitioners and the American Horse Council considered jointly. The Unwanted Horse Coalition was formed to address the this problem and invites you to become involved. As horse lovers, we share responsibility for this issue.

Taking A Closer Look: How Blood Tests Can Add To Your Horse’s Exam

There are times when your veterinarian might advise running some “bloodwork” on your horse, but why? What information is gained, and how might it help? The answer depends on the specific tests run. Obviously, there are blood tests to detect the presence of specific viruses and bacteria that cause diseases, but what about the hematology and chemistry tests?

First, an explanation of what the tests are and what they reveal. The hematology tests analyze the components of the blood, which are the red blood cells, the white blood cells, and the total solids (proteins) in the blood.   Red blood cells carry oxygen to the tissues in the body, and too few red blood cells is called anemia. Red cell numbers can fall because of a lack of production if the bone marrow is being suppressed by inflammation or other illness, loss due to bleeding somewhere in the body, or inappropriate destruction, which can occur with a number of diseases. An increase in red cells is usually associated with dehydration, but rarely, horses with liver disease produce too many red cells. White blood cells are the soldiers of the immune system, and changes in the population of white cells can indicate inflammation. Depending on the change in the white cells, your veterinarian may also gain information about the severity and nature of the inflammation.

The biochemical analysis, or chemistry, is a panel of tests that reflect the function of different organ systems of the body, and can also indicate inflammation. Information is available on a standard chemistry test about the health of the liver, kidneys, muscles, and intestines.

There are a number of situations in which hematology and chemistry can be useful in managing a horse’s health care. The most obvious case is when a horse is showing signs of illness, such as fever, cough, weight loss, loss of appetite, change in manure, etc. The information gained from the blood work can point the veterinarian toward the cause of the disease, which will determine treatment, and also give vital information about the severity of the problem, which may change the approach to treatment (at home vs.in a clinic) or the expected outcome of treatment. Periodic blood tests during treatment help the veterinarian know how the horse is responding to treatment.

Sometimes, it is helpful to run bloodwork on healthy horses. The most common reason to run blood tests on healthy horses is to monitor the health of older horses. Just as we tend to develop problems as we age, horses may develop age related problems as they grow older. Running a hematology and chemistry yearly can help to catch liver, kidney, and sometimes endocrine problems early when intervention is most likely to be helpful. Another group of healthy horses in which routine blood work can be helpful is the population of horses that are maintained on medication long term. Any medication given over time can have systemic effects, and monitoring the health of the organs with simple blood tests can catch liver or kidney problems, gastrointestinal inflammation, or anemia early, before they make the horse sick. Including blood work into your horse’s yearly exam, especially if he is older than 15 years old or on “maintenance” medication or supplements, may help your veterinarian optimize his health and well-being.

Dr. Tracy Norman Attends Advanced Cardiology Course

Dr. Tracy Norman attended an advanced equine cardiology course in Las Vegas offered by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that was only open to internal medicine and veterinary cardiology specialists. New research regarding the importance of heart rhythm disturbances  on performance and safety was presented, as well as advanced techniques in echocardiography (heart ultrasound) and cardiac diagnostics for horses with poor athletic performance. This course will help me to thoroughly diagnose heart murmurs, rhythm disturbances, and performance limitations, to formulate a prognosis for horses with heart problems, and aid owners and riders in making informed decisions about the safety and suitability of horses for different kinds of work.

Basic Equine First Aid Kit

Most horse owners have certain medications/supplies they won’t be caught without. Following is a suggested list to cover most needs until the veterinarian arrives. This would make a great gift for a new horse owner!

Equipment:
Stethoscope
Thermometer
Watch
Flash light
Bandage Scissors
Dose syringe
Spare halter and lead

Bandaging supplies:
Pack of gauze square (4X4’s)
Non stick pads
Stretch gauze rolls
Sheet cotton
Standing wraps and bandages
Vet wrap
Elastikon
Roll cotton

Medications:
One dose of banamine or buscopam-call 1st
Triple antibiotic or SSD ointment
Bute paste, powder or tabs
Epsom salt
Mastitis cream syringe
Eye wash
Desitin

Other supplies:
Surgical scrub: Nolvasan or similar
Saline spray
Gloves
Poultice

Hoof care:
Duct tape
Soaking boot such as a “Davis Blue Boot”
Items to pull a shoe: Rasp and Pull offs
Animalintex poultice pads

My Old Friend

So many of us have one of these among our pets, no more so than with our horses. The older horse who has been a part of someone’s life for 20+ years is a blessing and a treasure. I count myself lucky every time I get to be a part of one of these special relationships. These days I am seeing many of my patients cruising through their twenties and enjoying life in their thirties. As this becomes more common, I find myself answering more questions about what special care may be required to keep these horses happy. Here are some insights into issues older horses may face.

Arthritis to some degree is something with which many older horses have to deal. This is most often mild and may be noticed only as stiffness when first getting out of the stall after a night’s rest. Occasionally it is more significant and may be localized to a particular area and cause obvious lameness and reluctance to move as much as they used to do. Loss of muscle mass can also be seen as a result of decreased activity associated with arthritis. Treatment for arthritis may be as simple as keeping horses turned out for the mildest of cases or daily treatment with joint supplements or pain relievers such as phenylbutazone or firocoxib (Equioxx) for those that need it. If tolerated, slow and steady regular exercise can help keep these horses active and healthy.

As horses age, they often have trouble maintaining their weight. There are several factors that can contribute to this. First, decreased exercise will cause muscles to atrophy especially along the topline, making horses appear skinnier and often sway backed. Those horses that are able to be ridden lightly will maintain a topline better than those that are sidelined for one reason or another. Secondly, older horses may have dental problems associated with coming to the end of their teeth. Horses’ teeth continue to erupt throughout their lifetime but as horses live longer they will run out of tooth root and teeth will begin to fall out. Proper dental care can ease discomfort by removing excessively loose teeth and smoothing any sharp points or transitions in the remaining teeth. With missing teeth or poor dentition it is likely that these horses will need special feed and may even need it soaked so that they can get all the nutrients that they need. Thirdly, the g.i. system becomes much less capable of digesting feeds with age and more of what you feed is wasted and simply passes through the system. The best way to help our older friends through this is with senior feeds that are designed to be more digestible so nutrients are readily available for absorption through the intestines.

Another issue with which our senior horses can be faced is an endocrine disease commonly referred to as equine Cushing’s disease, caused by a tumor on the pituitary gland. While this is a tumor, it is usually slow growing and doesn’t seem to spread to other places in the body. What it does cause are a number of changes in the body associated with excessive hormone production by the affected tissue in the pituitary gland. Outwardly, what you can see is long hair that often doesn’t shed and they can look skinny but have abnormal deposits of fat especially near the tail. These horses also tend to drink more, are more prone to infections, and more susceptible to laminitis. There is a blood test that can help diagnose this problem and medication to help control it (Prascend).

Finally, vision and muscle coordination can sometimes diminish with age. Horses can get cataracts associated with age similar to people. In horses it is called lenticular sclerosis and usually doesn’t lead to blindness but can certainly make it harder to see detail especially in low light. Coordination can diminish for many reasons and most of the time it can be difficult to determine the exact cause, but closer examination may reveal some clues as to whether it is arthritis or infection or something else.

Knowing all this may make some folks wonder why anyone would ever want to have an older horse. But anyone who has had the privilege of caring for that special horse that has taken care of them for so many years will tell you how profound a relationship develops between horse and rider. The joy they get out of seeing that horse respond to them every day when they arrive to take care of all that they need is worth every bit of trouble.

New Equine Leptospirosis Vaccine Available

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that can cause illness in many species of mammals, including people. In horses, leptospiral infection has been associated with kidney failure, pregnancy loss, and equine recurrent uveitis, which can lead to blindness. Horses become infected with leptospirosis through contact of mucus membranes or broken skin with infected water.  The kidney is the target organ of the bacteria, and the horse can spread the disease through infected urine. Disease may be asymptomatic, limited to mild fever and malaise, or may cause acute renal failure, uterine infections leading to abortion in mares, or recurrent bouts of uveitis that may affect one or both eyes.

Until recently, control measures for leptospirosis in horses were limited to providing access to clean drinking water, vaccinating other susceptible in-contact animals such as cattle and dogs, and using ruminant vaccines off label. Recently, an equine specific vaccine was introduced (LEPTO EQ EQ INNOVATOR ®) to protect horses against Leptospira pomona, which is reported to be the species of leptospirosis most commonly associated with clinical disease in horses. This vaccine may be especially helpful broodmares, horses with access to ponds or other natural water sources, and horses with equine recurrent uveitis. Please contact your veterinarian to learn more about whether your horse would benefit from this vaccine.

Navigating Back To Normal: General Care Of Neglected Horses

Horses that have suffered from prolonged neglect have special needs that extend beyond malnutrition. Many may have health problems need to be addressed in addition to the horse’s nutritional needs. The first step in making a plan for the long term care of horse that has suffered neglect is to have a veterinarian perform a full physical examination to determine the needs of that individual horse, and to document the condition of the horse when it arrives at its foster facility. Without previous records for healthcare, it should be assumed that the horse has not received any attention or preventative care, and the horse should be quarantined from the healthy herd initially.

Farrier care: Horses that are neglected may have significant hoof problems. Poor nutrition contributes to weak hooves, lack of good hygiene can lead to thrush, and lack of trimming leads to severe overgrowth and cracking. An early evaluation with a farrier is needed to make a plan for returning the hoof to a more normal condition. Depending on the condition of the feet, the farrier may request radiographs to evaluate the interior structures of the foot. Changing the foot is a gradual process, and may require frequent visits from the farrier for the first few months.

Deworming: Horses that have not been well cared for are at risk for significant parasitism. The best way to document the parasite burden in a horse is to have a fecal flotation performed. While it is true that parasites contribute to malnutrition in a horse, it is also true that severely debilitated horses lack the internal resources to withstand the damage to the intestinal tract that can occur when parasites die off and are eliminated from the body. Also, it is very difficult without a scale to determine the weight of an emaciated horse to determine proper dosing of anthelminthic drugs. There is no clear consensus in the veterinary community about the exact method that is best for deworming debilitated horses, but there is agreement that the gravest danger to these horses is the emergence of encysted cyathostomes (small strongyles) from the gut wall. When the adult forms of these parasites are killed by drugs like ivermectin, the larvae emerge from the gut wall, causing bleeding, inflammation, and loss of protein. Thus, recommendations most commonly include using a larvacidal medication (a single dose of moxidectin (Quest®) or 5 double doses of fenbendazole (Panacur®) to prevent this rapid emergence. Because there is still damage done to the gut lining, however, it is prudent to wait until the horse is acclimated to a normal plane of nutrition and gaining strength and condition prior to administering any anthelminthic. A veterinarian can help to determine when and how often to address parasite issues in recovering horses.

Vaccination: Horses suffering the effects of chronic malnutrition do not have the ability to respond normally to vaccination. The immune system depends on the body’s ability to produce proteins and build tissues, which is crippled during starvation. Vaccination should not be initiated until the horse is beginning to improve in condition after acclimating to a normal diet; vaccination is an important defense against infectious agents, but is secondary to rebuilding the body from strict survival mode. An initial series of each vaccination will be required, unless there are records to prove previous vaccination. During recovery, a staggered vaccination schedule is preferred, as debilitated horses are not able to withstand the challenges of vaccination that healthy horses are. The American Association of Equine Practitioners deems rabies, tetanus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Western Equine Encephalitis, and West Nile Virus to the core vaccines that all horses should receive. Additional recommended vaccinations for different geographical areas should be determined through consultation with the attending veterinarian.

General considerations: Very thin horses lack the intrinsic resources to withstand changes in weather. Providing shelter and blankets helps to avoid further depleting the horse’s energy stores in cold weather. Fresh, clean water and minerals should be available at all times. Meticulous wound care and general hygiene are important, as the immune system is damaged in starvation, and unable to fight against infection. When possible, stress should be minimized; horses should not have to compete for food or shelter, but should have other horses within sight to reduce anxiety. Dental care, which is important, should be delayed until the horse is stronger and gaining weight, as sedation and dental work are often poorly tolerated by debilitated horses. Many horses are rescued from neglectful situations with diseases that are a consequence of their poor care. Frequent veterinary evaluation, including blood work if a problem is suspected, can help to guide treatment and improve outcomes.